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Anthropogenic effects on habitat use, activity budget, and energy balance in Macaca nigra at Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

Ira Ratna Sari, MSc student, Georg-August University Goettingen, Germany - 2013 completed

Habitat loss and disturbance is the most common threats for non-human primates. There are direct and indirect habitat disturbance. Major indirect disturbances could be related to ecotourism. The effects of tourism and human alterations on the behavior of Sulawesi black crested macaque Macaca nigra were evaluated in Tangkoko Nature Reserve (TNR), Indonesia.
Our results showed no significant difference in the habitat quality between the two groups (Forest Group and Village Group). The increase in daily movements was significantly correlated with tourism presence, but no effects on vertical movements and feeding activities. There was no seasonal variation in food availability. plots on gentle slope and rarely visited by tourists were the most used plots . This is also related to the strategy to conserve energy.
Results of this study suggest that tourist presence is affecting the energy use of the monkeys. Nevertheless the ecotourism is one of the alternatives for sustainable forest use for local people and can help the conservation if managed properly.