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The stress factor: Examining anthropogenic sources of stress in wild M. nigra 
Dominique Bertrand, PhD student, University at Buffalo, USA and Uni Sutiah, University Gadja Mada, Indonesia

Dominique (Niki) BertrandUni SutiahEcotourism sites are often buttressed against villages..This proximity can cause conflict between human and animal populations. Primate conservation status is often used as an indicator of the overall health of resident ecosystems. As such, it is important to understand the factors, both natural and anthropogenic, that contribute to poor primate fitness in the wild. In order to explore these factors, in our study, we therefore examine two anthropogenic influences (tourism and range restriction) on stress-related behaviour and physiology of M. nigra in Tangkoko. Specifically, our aim is to pinpoint which aspects of anthropogenic disturbances are most stressful in order to recommend management adjustments that will bring Tangkoko in closer alignment with its conservation goals.